Unsavoury: Vegan sausage rolls and the post-millennial politics of pork

This is a text about flesh. Its purpose is to critique the dominant carnist ideologies of the western world, particularly in Britain over the last two decades. It is an examination of contemporary meat consumption based on the principles of feminist vegetarian critical theory with special consideration to Greggs’ Vegan Sausage Roll and why the release was so controversial, as well as how those controversies are a microcosm of the current political climate. To summarise in what a good friend calls “university words”; this is an investigation into carnist hegemony and the ideologies and philosophies that accompany- an unpicking of British culinary identity and understanding of social conditions. For the rest of us; I’m just a girl, sitting in front of a laptop, talking about ham.

 

Meat consumption has been an increasingly topical issue over the past few years with the rising concern over the future of the planet and evidence emerging that factory farming and meat production is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. [1]

Additionally, we live in the age of choice. Meat consumption is no longer a necessary part of the human condition, if it ever were to begin with. Plant based alternatives and substitutes are so readily available that its easier than ever to live a meat free diet but there are many who refuse to acknowledge these truths. Meat consumption is so culturally ingrained the Western psyche that it is hard to fathom life without it. This is called ‘carnism’, defined as

“the invisible belief system that propagates meat consumption as a given”[2]

 

As this could be considered a sensitive subject, it is my aim to approach this in an accessible and mutually understandable manner, one that presents both facts and theories but not accuse or judge as many plant-based activists are assumed to do. Think of this topic as easy to swallow, hard to digest.

 

To begin we should first address a term that I will likely refer to frequently: Gammon. By definition- a thick piece of pork. Gammon in colloquial slang equates to about the same. According to Urban Dictionary, the fountain of proverbial youth, a Gammon is identified as “a particular type of Brexit-voting, europhobic, middle-aged white male, whose meat-faced complexion suggests they are perilously close to a stroke”[3].  Although popularised since the Brexit referendum, the term was coined by Caitlin Moran[4] when she described David Cameron as “a camp gammon robot...a C3PO made of ham”.

In the interest of keeping my wordcount down I shall also henceforth abbreviate ‘vegan sausage roll’ to ‘VSR’

 

I have approached the research of this text from several angles; a mix of books and journals to address more traditional sources as well as online forums, comment sections and articles as it seems only appropriate to explore contemporary sources considering the time frame of study. Upon the release of the VSR although there were few physical riots in response, the internet figuratively blew up. People took to Twitter and Reddit to express both anger and elation so naturally these forums are a reasonable place to gather opinion. ‘Traditional’ sources are excellent for background theory but to gain true insight into the collective mindset of the general public one must venture online.

 

We shall touch briefly on the history of meat, the philosophy of meat and contemporary meat consumption before finally analysing the infamous Vegan Sausage Roll. Granted I certainly have an agenda being a vegetarian, but I want this text to be the catalyst for conversation. I do not want to tell people what to do or what to think, but rather offer an opinion and a space for contemplation and exchange. Change can only be implemented through education and mutual understanding, through discussion rather than instruction.

Fleisch Macht Fleisch: Meat in History

 

Conversations and concerns about meat have existed for as long as we have been eating it. From prehistoric times through to modern day, meat has sat at the heart of the table. Often considered the food of the affluent, meat has ingrained itself so firmly in human culture that we have even adapted our language around it. On one hand “bringing home the bacon”, “killing two birds with one stone”, “eggs in one basket” amongst other meat-based idioms generally represent success, there are also derogatory descriptives such as “filthy swine” “pigsty” “fat pig” that exist to compare and offend. Pigs especially are viewed in many religions as unclean or improper, thought to perhaps originate from the non-nomadic nature of the species and therefore the inability to move them with the needs of the people.[5]

 

Flesh features heavily both symbolically and physically in the Bible, once unofficially dubbed ‘the meat eater’s manifesto’[6]. God begins in Genesis by stating “every moving thing that lives shall be food for you. And as I gave you the green plants, I give you everything.”[7] He retracts that statement a little later in Leviticus, taking out a few options “the pig, because it parts the hoof and is cloven-footed but does not chew the cud, is unclean to you. You shall not eat any of their flesh, and you shall not touch their carcasses; they are unclean to you”[8] . This marks the start of the controversy surrounding pork. Although today Christians may be perhaps be a little less particular in regard to cloven hoof, they still have no problem figuratively consuming both the blood and flesh of Christ.
Catholic traditions of abstinence from both meat and other pleasures of the flesh are referenced and mocked in a sixteenth century woodcut found in the Rijksmuseum. Depicted is an image of a nun attempting to trade a fish with a cat holding a penis in his mouth. I’m sure we’ve all been in similar situations. Captioned “Fleish Macht Fleish”, which if my German is as average as I think it is translates to something along the lines of “meat makes meat”. One Reddit user proposed that this stems from an old German proverb: “Fleisch macht fleisch, fisch macht nicht”[9] which again translates roughly to “meat gives meat, fish gives nothing”, perhaps a reference to the apparent pointlessness of abstinence. Whatever the meaning, this image provides an early introduction into the perceived links between meat, masculinity and virility. The implication of carnal desires and pleasures of the flesh is very clear.

 

Meat is historically considered the most important component of a meal, and in essence a “source of societal power” as “the resources required to obtain meat meant it was mainly the preserve of the upper classes, while the peasantry subsisted on a mostly vegetarian diet”[10]. As a result, the consumption of meat was associated with dominant power structures in society, its absence from the plate indicating disadvantaged groups, such as women and the poor. To control the supply of meat was to control the people.”[11] This carnivorous hegemony continued throughout history to present day, though particularly in Europe and America whilst many Eastern countries existed primarily on vegetarian diets for centuries. The semiotics of this shall be considered in a later chapter. With the rise of factory farming and the formation of the meat industry, flesh is no longer reserved for the affluent, although it remains synonymous with ‘real food’ and is held in high regard within British traditions such as The Roast Dinner, a socially significant event that brings family and friends together. Culinary tradition and preference can also divide;


“since foods are used to represent particular values, the sharing of food or of ways of eating can be an eloquent statement of shared ideology and express group affiliation. Conversely, those who diverge from community standards will commonly be stigmatised”[12]

 

Vegetarianism nowadays is certainly considered normal, however in recent years it has been replaced with a new social dissension- veganism.

Wir Haben Es Nicht Gewusst: Meat Today

 

We live today in the age of choice. The surge in availability and cross-continent trade sees a contemporary shift in diet, with western countries opting for more plant-based diets and emerging countries who traditionally relied on plant-based diets seeing an influx of carnism.

As a vegetarian of a few years I have seen first-hand this shift in meat alternative availability. When I first made the decision in 2015 I could find frozen Quorn products in a few supermarkets. Today I can purchase vegan ‘chicken’ from KFC. Although having existed for many years, veganism was arguably popularised and thrown into the mainstream by the ‘Veganuary’ movement starting in 2014 which promoted awareness, participation and corporate outreach. In its first year the society received 3,300 sign ups. In 2019, 250,310 people took the pledge[13]. The swift increase in popularity is clear, however being against the social norm it was still met with some disdain. Many people take the opportunity to flood the Twitter hashtag ‘Veganuary’ with pictures of themselves cooking meat because they are original and clever and oh so witty.[14]

 

Interestingly, of all those that signed up for 2019’s challenge, the majority (46%) cited their own health as the main reason for making a change and I’ll take this opportunity to throw in some facts: Processed meat is a Group 1 proven carcinogen alongside 120 others, such as alcohol, tobacco and asbestos. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that consumption of processed flesh is accountable for an additional 34000 cancer related deaths.[15]

 

The issue is that we are just so used to meat consumption. Ham and pork are seen as quintessentially British foods, and “we select our food according to social imperatives as much as according to biological needs”[16]. I thoroughly acknowledge that it is incredibly hard to change habits enforced on us from birth, and it is difficult to change when others around us do not. It was undeniably easier for me to change my diet once I had moved away from the family home and started Art School, experiencing new ways of thinking and being able to forge my own rituals surrounding cuisine. “Our decisions about food are complicated by the fact we don’t eat alone. Table fellowship has forged social bonds as far back as archaeological record allows us to look. Food, family, and memory are primordially linked”[17] and for many, bacon is considered a “a repository of childhood memories, a totem of home”. The smell of frying is ranked amongst the nation’s favourites, alongside cut grass and freshly baked bread[18]. These tokens of comfort are understandably hard to forgo, especially when accompanied with a lifetime of habit. But after all, “bacon is proof, if it were needed, that we cling to old comforts long after they have been proven harmful”[19]

 

The increase of vegetarians and vegans has also given rise to a contrasting figure: The Gammon. Usually old, usually white, usually racist, or at least uncomfortable with anything they are not accustomed to. The type to accuse a millennial of being a ‘snowflake’[20] and yet simultaneously kick off when faced with the possibility of new food that they are under no obligation to buy. There are many that turn their nose up at a meat free lifestyle.

Twitter user ‘Bob For A Full Brexit’ tweets that “Vegans could legally fight unethical bank notes following landmark ruling, it’s getting silly and annoying that snowflake minorities are trying to change lives of majorities! Vegans, transgender, halal, etc”[21]. I fixed the punctuation and spelling to make for an easier read.

 

“A vegetarian diet can be rich and fully enjoyable, but I honestly couldn’t argue, as many vegetarians try to, that it is as rich as a diet that includes meat”.[22] Says Foer, and to this I must disagree. Perhaps in the days of disappointing bean burgers as the only option, however with the swift rise in available meat alternatives there is a whole world of choice. Even without, it is merely about a shift in perspective. If you approach a vegetarian diet with distain and an attitude that mourns the loss of flesh, then of course you will be disappointed. If you approach a vegetarian diet with a mindset that welcomes introducing a new variety of experiences into your life, then it is incredibly fulfilling. It is not about what you are missing, but what you are embracing. Meat is so central to our collective western identity we cannot fathom life without it. You don’t miss meat, you miss the choices it presents. I must add that I have taken this quote quite out of context, the book itself is incredibly balanced and actually advocates the cessation of animal consumption. He questions our moral decisions in a stirring soliloquy:

 

      “Just how destructive does a culinary preference have to be before we decide to eat something else? If contributing to the suffering of billions of animals that live miserable lives and die in horrific ways isn’t motivation, what would be? If being the number one contributor to the most serious threat facing the planet (global warming) isn’t enough, then what is? And if you’re tempted to put off these questions of conscience to say ‘not now’, then when?”[23]

 

However, I will not sit on my high horse and preach. “But what about cheese?” I scream when faced with the prospect of veganism. I could do more. We could all do more.

Another Reddit user summarised it perfectly:

 

     “I think that anyone who is able to go vegan has a moral imperative to do so. Anybody who looks into the ethical, environmental and health benefits of veganism should conclude that it is necessary and right. Most meat eaters are simply ignorant of the facts, and I feel no resentment of them for that; some are actively engaged in disinformation and poor philosophy, which pisses me off. There are no good arguments against veganism that don't boil down to ‘bacon yum yum’.[24]

 

It is no longer possible to feign ignorance. Living as we do in the internet age with information available at the touch of a button, one cannot simply dismiss animal cruelty as an unknown concern. Passivity is as disagreeable as active slaughter. “Wir haben es nicht gewusst”[25] the people shrug and sigh. This highlights a refusal to acknowledge in fear of accepting the violent truth and face the repercussions of one’s dietary habits. It is so important to not only accept but to also address these issues for both our individual moral wellbeing and for the sake of the planet. I will not sit here and scream that every human must abstain from flesh immediately but faced with so much damming evidence one must agree that change is imperative. I fully understand the difficulty of unravelling a lifetime of habit and ritual but when faced with the possibility of a dying world one’s personal preferences seem trivial. “Some people are uncomfortable with the notion of collective guilt, that we should bear for acts committed by another. But feeling to some extent complicit is not necessarily a pointless emotion, it can move us to moral responsibility”[26]

Dogs look up to you, cats look down on you, but pigs is equal: Meat in Philosophy

 

Animals have always been the subject of discussion in philosophical discourse. Many have argued that animals lack the cognitive ability to contemplate the future and therefore could not be considered equal to humans, though it could not be boiled down to such simple terms. For example, “non-human animals lack the capacity for abstract reflection and hence cannot contemplate explicit sets of generally applicable social rules, animals cannot find life meaningful”[27] which feels strangely comparable to a recent comment made by Conservative candidate Sally-Ann Hart who stated that disabled people should be paid less because they “don’t understand money”[28].

Others like Bentham emphasise the capacity of animals to ‘undergo’ something rather than ‘accomplishing’ anything, arguing that their sentience is just as relevant. Unfortunately, “few, if any, postmodern thinkers escape the historical influence of anthropocentric prejudice on our thinking about animals. Given that the history of this prejudice coincides with the entire history of western philosophy it would be not be idle to wonder whether such influence can even be completely overcome”[29]

 

Arguing these divisions would be another essay entirely, so we shall instead focus on a theory vaguely proposed by Jacques Derrida in the early 2000s and the elaboration of such hypothesis by Carole J Adams- carnophallogocentrism.
This hard to pronounce jumble of letters can be broken down into three aspects that when combined form an intersectional analysis of self-presence, masculinity and carnism:


1) Logocentrism: language as an expression of external reality

 

2) Phallocentrism: quintessentially virile and masculine aspects of social institutions

 

3) Carnocentrism: anthropocentric ideologies

 

Although never explicitly confirmed by Derrida, Adams has since theorised how this relates to the sexual politics of meat and her ideas around the Absent Reference[30]; how both women and animals are positioned as overlapping absent referents in a patriarchal culture and the violence towards them is ignored. In credit to Derrida, though he mostly avoided confirming the true meaning of this thinking on this subject, he is described as “one of the few continental philosophers who linked not only phallocentric notions of subjectivity but anthropocentric and carnivorous tendencies of tradition”[31]. Adams discusses these carnist ideologies by explaining that “meat eating societies gain human male identification by their choice of food” and that “a belief exists that strength comes from eating ‘strong animals’ and that vegetables represent passivity”[32] and thus it is appropriate to assume that the VSR was so ill received because it was viewed as a threat to collective masculinity.

 

Whilst on such philosophies let me theorise this; those Gammons who react so violently to the prospect of a meat free diet do so because they are fully aware that they are making the immoral choice. They are not willing to embrace new ways of thinking, clinging on so tightly to ‘the good old days’ where paedophiles ran wild in the BBC and marriages didn’t dissolve because Snapchat didn’t exist. You know, back when we were truly Great Britain.

 

Regardless of stance, unfortunately “no amount of philosophical blather can get us past this immovable rock of human treachery”[33]

PC Ravaged Clowns: The Vegan Sausage Roll

 

The VSR was launched in January 2019 to coincide with Veganuary after an online petition gathered over 20,000 signatures. Many vegan alternatives existed before, both from other stores and even within Greggs’ own range. No one bats an eyelid when Waitrose release another bean burger, so why did this particular product cause such a fuss? In short, the combination of shop and product was the catalyst for controversy. With roots in the North of England and the ability to flourish even in the recession, Greggs is considered a high street staple. Often employing young people from the surrounding area it is seen as more a local store than a nationwide chain, providing food at a very reasonable price for people of all walks of life. This is partly responsible for the fuss, the cultural shift of bringing veganism to the working class and causing a change in narrative. Veganism was otherwise seen as a middle-class habit and the repercussions of making veganism affordable and accessible created more of a debate about class and politics than the product itself.
Pork being such a ‘British’ food is the other half of the argument. Apparently a third of the population eat a ham sandwich for lunch every day and the sausage roll is such an exemplary English snack that some folk could not wrap round their head around the idea of something not sausage being called a sausage. In a wider context pork itself is likely the most controversial meat and “the EDL contingent is heavily invested in pork as a kind of toxic talisman, capable of defiling the enemy whilst at the same time expressing everything great about Britishness” because “as a product that also offends vegetarians and probably feminists, it’s a win win.”[34]. When typing ‘britishness’, Word attempted to correct it to ‘brutishness’. How fitting.

 

The never-ending disagreements about Brexit continue to be “the incendiary device in what has been a long wave of Islamophobia”, after multiple incidents of men throwing ham at mosques[35] and a Brexit support march mistaken for a protest against VSR[36]. There has been a noticeable spike in hate crimes since referendum[37] and the politics of Brexit and the VSR are surprisingly closely linked, with Gammon types spouting about taking the country back taking great offence to pseudo-meat products, blaming all those outside of their porcine white bubble. It is this link that I feel is particularly striking and prevalent, the correlation of xenophobia and carnism. Remember in 2008 when Burger King released their most famous advert, The Whopper Virgins?[38] Apparent[39] indigenous peoples from remote areas of the world were given a Whopper for the “purest taste test in the world”. This stereotype of “effeminate rice eater” has existed since colonial times and that the eating of meat helped colonisers to become more masculine and therefore more dominant. Not only that, but that “populations could be ‘helped’ if they were simply provided the ‘right’ kinds of Western style meat”[40]. Additionally, “these claims about meat eating, gender and race operate not only in expansionist forms of colonialism but also internally against immigrant groups”[41]

To me this explains the increase in xenophobia post referendum, especially the influx of islamophobia as in the eyes of the Gammon any culture that avoids pork must be up to something and therefore liable for blame. Twitter user ‘Kev 73s Brexit DONE!’ states that “All shite vegans should be deported with remainers”[42], as well as speculating that Linda McCartney’s vegetarian sausage rolls are “made from her decomposing orifices”[43]. Sigh. User ‘Kingdom Zebedee’ expresses his fury that Warburtons bread is Halal and vegan certified; “Unbelievable, only 0.9% of the UK is vegan and we are all having their vegan certified bread put into our lives. BREXIT MEANS BREXIT”.[44]

 

“Racial and diet stereotypes, the colonial justification of European paternalism, and an international hostility for immigrants became interwoven into a single worldview which portrays immigrants as both biologically limited and threatening to white manhood”[45]

 

Emerging from Daily Mail amongst the controversy, an article appeared titled “Greggs’ guilty secret: More calories than a McCheeseburger and laced with controversial palm oil- the unpalatable truth about that very right on vegan sausage roll”. Along with a title almost longer than the article itself (a real mouthful, pun intended), the crude attempt at journalism sported an image of the offending snack captioned: “the filling starts life as a mouldy fungus extracted from soil and grown in commercial plots”[46]. A strange attempt at a negative media spin, implying that gristle, bone and mechanically recovered meat is of course far more appealing. Because after all, the original Greggs sausage roll only actually contains 18% pork (apparently[47]). Ironically, we may all have to reduce our meat consumption if the price of meat shoots up if/when Brexit happens. Greggs themselves have been stockpiling bacon and tuna in the run up to the ever-looming deadline of British ‘independence’.[48]

 

And so in conclusion here I stand as some kind of attempted carnist iconoclast. This text could probably have been more balanced, sure, and I won’t deny my natural bias. My hope is merely that this incites conversation. Bring it up at your next family dinner, talk to your parents, your friends, strangers online. Make your own decisions but make them informed. You do not need to be radical to make a difference, but it helps. It’s easier than you think.

 

“the need to establish manliness through meat eating has always suggested an instability through masculinity”[49]

 

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[1] Cowspiracy (2014). Facts. Available at: https://www.cowspiracy.com/facts [Accessed 12/05/19]

[2] Potts, A (2017) p19

[3] EuropaMaxima (2018). Gammon Definition. Available at: https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Gammon  [Accessed 15/09/19]

[4] Moran, C (2012), Moranthology.

[5] Mason, J (2004) p19

[6] Cockburn, A/Coe, S (1995) Dead Meat p5

[7] Genesis 9:3

[8] Leviticus 11:7-8

[9] Sl99 (2015). Medieval WTF: A Monk Exchanges Fish For a Penis Carried by a Cat. [Comment] Available at: https://www.reddit.com/r/WTF/comments/1xzsxf/medieval_wtf_a_monk_exchanges_fish_for_a_penis/ [Accessed 03/03/19]

[10] Hamzah, S (2018). How the Rise of Veganism May Tenderise Fictional Language. Available at: https://theconversation.com/how-the-rise-of-veganism-may-tenderise-fictional-language-106576 [Accessed 24/10/19]

[11] Hamzah, S (2018). How the Rise of Veganism May Tenderise Fictional Language. Available at: https://theconversation.com/how-the-rise-of-veganism-may-tenderise-fictional-language-106576 [Accessed 24/10/19]

[12] Fiddes, N (1989) Meat: A Natural Symbol, p54

[13] https://uk.veganuary.com/blog/veganuary-2019-the-results-are-in/

[14] https://twitter.com/search?q=veganuary&src=typed_query

[15] Wilson, B (2018). Yes, Bacon Really is Killing Us. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/mar/01/bacon-cancer-processed-meats-nitrates-nitrites-sausages [Accessed 19/06/19]

[16] Fiddes,N (1989) p16

[17] Foer, J (2009) p194

[18] Wilson, B (2018). Yes, Bacon Really is Killing Us. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/mar/01/bacon-cancer-processed-meats-nitrates-nitrites-sausages [Accessed 19/06/19]

[19] Wilson, B (2018). Yes, Bacon Really is Killing Us. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/mar/01/bacon-cancer-processed-meats-nitrates-nitrites-sausages [Accessed 19/06/19]

[20] Someone that is easily offended

[21] @boblister_poole. 2020. Vegans could legally fight unethical banknotes[…] . [Twitter]. 04/01/20. [Accessed 04/01/20]. Available at: https://twitter.com/boblister_poole/status/1213375595012329472

[22] Foer, J (2009) p197

[23] Foer, J (2009) p243

[24] @jonnyopinion (2017). Vegans of Reddit: What are your honest opinions on Meat Eaters? [Comment]. Available at: https://www.reddit.com/r/AskReddit/comments/6v9xsn/vegans_of_reddit_what_are_your_honest_opinions_on/ [Accessed 21/11/19]

[25] “We did not know”, an ironic slander against the people of Germany post-holocaust

[26] Mason, J (2004) p24

[27] Steiner,G (2013) p92

[28] Stone, J (2019). Tory Election Candidate says Disabled People Should be Paid Less as they Don’t Understand Money. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/conservatives-candidate-general-election-disabled-people-money-sally-ann-hart-a9235281.html [Accessed 09/12/19]

[29] Steiner,G (2013) p81

[30] Absent referent: “functions to cloak the violence inherent to meat consumption to protect the conscience of the consumer and render the idea of individual animals as immaterial to anyone’s selfish desires”.

[31]Potts,A (2017) p39

[32] Potts,A (2017) p34

[33] Mason, J (2004) p12

[34] Williams, Z (2019). Half baked: What Greggs’ Vegan Sausage Roll Says About Brexit Britain. The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2019/jan/07/greggs-vegan-sausage-roll-brexit-britain-culture-wars [Accessed 18/03/19]

[35] Mowat, L (2016). Two Polish Men Jailed for Throwing Bacon Inside a Mosque […]. Available at: https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/728069/Polish-men-jailed-throwing-bacon-mosque [Accessed 14/12/19]

[36] Roberts, J (2019). Brexit Rally Outside Greggs Mistaken for Anti Vegan Sausage Roll Protest. Available at: https://metro.co.uk/2019/01/05/brexit-rally-outside-greggs-mistaken-anti-vegan-sausage-roll-protest-8313027/ [Accessed 14/12/19]

[37] BBC (2019). Brexit Major Influence in Racism and Hate Crime Rise. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-48692863 [Accessed 22/07/19]

[38] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RSiPFRMwTcY

[39] Speculation that Burger King faked or lied about many aspects of the scenario

[40] Potts, A (2017) p96

[41] Potts, A (2017) p96

[42] @sturmer_d. 2020. All shite vegans should be deported with remainers. [Twitter]. 02/01/20. [Accessed 02/01/20]. Available at: https://twitter.com/sturmer_d/status/1212767542059634696

[43] @sturmer_d. 2020. Made from her decomposing orifices. [Twitter]. 02/01/20. [Accessed 02/01/20]. Available at: https://twitter.com/sturmer_d/status/1212767542059634696

[44] @Kingdomzebedee. 2019. Unbelievable, only 0.9% of the UK is vegan and we are all having their vegan certified bread put into our lives... [Twitter]. 3/1/19. [Accessed 3/1/20]. Available at: https://twitter.com/kingdomzebedee/status/1213050516529393664

[45] Potts, A (2017) p96

[46] Rainey, S (2019). Greggs’ Guilty Secret: More Calories Than a McCheeseburger and Laced with Controversial Palm Oil- The Very Unpalatable Truth about that VERY Right-On Sausage Roll. Available at: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6583469/The-unpalatable-truth-right-vegan-sausage-roll.html. [Accessed 14/12/19]

[47]Earl, G (2017). This Is How Much Meat is Actually in Greggs Sausage Rolls and Steak Bakes. Available at: https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/how-much-meat-actually-greggs-10717849 [Accessed 27/11/19

[48]Barr, S (2019). Greggs is Stockpiling Bacon and Tuna Ahead of Brexit. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/greggs-brexit-latest-stockpiling-eu-bacon-tuna-ingredients-deal-a9129001.html [Accessed 11/11/19]

[49] Adams &Potts(2017) p44

Bibliography

 

Books:

 

  • Adams, C J (2004). The Pornography of Meat. A&C Black.

 

  • Adams, C J (2010). The Sexual Politics of Meat: 20th Anniversary Edition. Bloomsbury.

 

  • Adams, C J (2018). Neither Man nor Beast: Feminism and the Defence of Animals. Bloomsbury.

 

  • Coe, S (1996). Dead Meat. Running Press.

 

  • Fiddes, N (1989). Meat: A Natural Symbol.

 

  • Fraiman, S (2012). Pussy Panic vs Liking Animals: Tracking Gender in Animal Studies. Critical Enquiry Vol 39 No 1 pp 89-115.

 

  • Levi-Strauss, C (1970). The Raw and the Cooked. Harper & Row, London.

 

  • Mason, J (2004). The Pig Who Sang to the Moon. Johnathon Cape.

 

  • Moran, C (2012), ‘Moranthology’.

 

  • Potts, A (Ed) (2016). Meat Culture. Brill, Boston.

 

  • Safran Foer, J (2009). Eating Animals.

 

  • Steiner, G (2013). Animals and the Limits of Postmodernism. Columbia Press.

 

  • Young, R (2003). The Secret Life of Cows.

 

Online: